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Glossary and Definitions

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Gold


Gold is a chemical element with atomic number 79. Its symbol is Au (from the Latin "aurum") is a transition metal soft, heavy, ductile, malleable yellow.


The gold, copper and cesium are the only elements in the metallic state, under standard conditions, are colored (in the sense of being equipped with tint).

Unaffected by most chemicals, is attacked in practice only the water direction, by cyanide ion and mercury. It is located in the native state in the form of nuggets, flakes and grains in rocks and alluvial deposits. It is used to make coins and monetary standard for many nations. It is also used in dentistry, jewelry and electronics industry.


Gold in nature can be found in hard rock, in auriferous sands, in nuggets or more rarely in veins, depending on the state in which it is different is the cost of extraction, to obtain the pure metal you are working with state material sand in case of need rock smash tons of material.


The gold in the pure state is very tender, to be used in jewelery, is alloyed with other metals, this proportions gives rise to the title.


The gold content can be expressed in thousandths or in carats (ct), other than carats (ct.) used for weighing precious stones. With the method micron pure gold equals one thousand milliseconds, then gold 750 ‰ means that every pound of metal contains 750 grams of gold and 250 grams of other metals.


The scale of carat (kt) is instead ventriquattresimale, pure gold is 24 carat (24 kt), so referring to the title more widespread in Italy, we can say that a pound of metal contains 18 parts gold and 6 parts other metals, here is the definition of gold 18 kt.

GOLD CARAT

Thousandths 333 375 417 585 750 915 1000
Carat - Kt 8 9 10 14 18 22 24

We can obtain jewelery in yellow gold, red gold, white gold, according to the proportion of the metals composing the alloy, or the presence or absence of the process of Rhodium (see Rhodium to this Glossary).


The study of the alloys is still a very important part in jewelry, since the different proportions, in addition to determine the color, affect the malleability and ductility of Matello making it more or less suitable to various types of processing.


Italy both for production and for level design is the major world producer of gold jewelry and precious stones.


The price of gold is fixed in the operation continuously throughout the day and in all the exchanges in the world, the price is fixed in U.S. dollars per ounce, an ounce is equivalent to 31.1034807 grams.

Silver


ilver is a chemical element in the periodic table that has the symbol Ag (from the abbreviation of the Latin word "Argentum") and atomic number 47.


It is a transition metal wheat, white and glossy; silver is the best conductor of heat and electricity among all metals, and is found in nature may be pure or in the form of ore. It is used in coinage, in photography and in jewelery, in which he stars with new product lines. For several years all major jewelery brands have moved towards the production of fine rings, bracelets, necklaces and earrings.


By title refers to the minimum percentage of pure silver in the alloy metal that makes up an object. By virtue of the beauty and luster of this precious metal, since ancient times, has been used for coins, cutlery, pottery, jewelry and more. The silver bars available on the market usually have title 999/1000, ie the alloy is composed of 99.9% pure silver. Most jewelry and household items instead have title 800, 835 and 925. These numbers indicate the minimum percentage of pure silver combined with other metals, composes the object.

The silver marked or stamped 925, which in English is called "Sterling Silver", is a composition of 925 guaranteed minimum parts of silver and 75 maximum than any other mineral. In jewelry, and for all the silver products present on Oromoda.net, is used silver title 925.

Platinum


Platinum is a metal, the chemical element of atomic number 78. Its symbol is Pt, is a precious transition metal, malleable, ductile (it is the most ductile metal) white-gray. Resists corrosion and is found both in the native state that in some ores of nickel and copper. Platinum is used in jewelry, in the production of laboratory equipment, electrical contacts, dentistry and chemical industries. Its resistance to corrosion and oxidation resistance makes it suitable for the production of jewelry, although little used.

Diamond


The diamond is a transparent crystal composed of carbon atoms in a tetrahedral structure. Diamonds have different applications thanks to the excellent physical properties of the material they are made of.

The most relevant features are its extreme hardness, the index of optical dispersion, the high thermal conductivity. Thanks to its hardness, the diamond can be scratched only by other diamonds and is able to retain its polishing for long periods of time: it is therefore suitable to be worn daily resisting wear well, and therefore widely used in jewelry.


The most common form of cutting of the diamond is round, called brilliant. This term identifies a round cut with 57 facets minimum to which is added a table below (not always available), total 58.


The popularity of this cut has led to a misunderstanding, the public tends to identify the terms and brilliant diamond as if they were the same thing. In practice, the term brilliant, if used alone, uniquely identifies the type of shear applied to the stone, not necessarily a diamond; there are in fact many other gemstones which may be cut to bright such as, for example, rubies, sapphires and topazes.


Other types of cutting, among the most famous and popular are: cutting heart, brilliant oval, marquise or navette, huit-huit, drip, an emerald, a yoke, a baguette, trapezoid, a pink Dutch rosette (now abandoned).


Among the most famous diamonds include: the blue Hope diamond weighing 45 carats which is preserved in the Smithsonian Institution in Washington, the green one in Dresden weight of 41 carats and Grünes Gewölbe kept in the same city, the Regent of the weight of 135 carats and the Sancy, weighing 55 carats formerly belonged to King Louis XVI of France and now in the Louvre and the Koh-i-Noor, weighing 108 carats place now in the Tower of London and, finally, the Cullinan weighing 621 grams from the mines of South Africa, it was originally the Star of Africa weighing 530 carats.

"4 Cs Of Diamonds"


The four factors that determine the value of the diamond are the Four "C", the initials of the four terms in English that is: "Color", "Clarity", "Cut", "Carat" weight in carats (ct) .


The color, the buds completely colorless and transparent, which are the most well, are defined "Colorless", follow the almost colorless or "Near Colorless" and the colored or "Slighty Tinted".

Diamonds can take almost all the colors, which are due to impurities or structural defects: yellow and brown are the most common. Diamonds "blacks" are not really such, but rather contain numerous inclusions that give the gem its dark appearance. When the color is quite saturated in yellow or brown diamonds, the stone can be defined color fancy (in Italian can be translated fantasy), otherwise they are classified by color with normal color scale of white diamonds. The color diamonds are rarer ones of red color, which never reach considerable size, followed by intense green color and then from the blue ones.

The Gemological Institute of America (GIA) ranks diamonds low saturation yellow and brown diamonds as in the normal scale of color, and applies a grading scale from 'D' (great white) to 'Z' (light yellow).

 

GIA color grade
Description

Appearance

D

Colorless

Stone looks absolutely clear, with no hint of color to the eye in color grading or mounted.

E

F

G

Near Colorless

Some color tint is visible during grading. Mounted in a setting, stone appears colorless.  GHI color diamonds are considered very nice diamonds for fine jewelry.

H

I

J

K

Faint yellow

Yellow or grayish tint is obvious during color grading. Mounted, this stone still shows a tint of color.

L

M

N-Z

Light yellow

Obvious yellow or grayish color.

Z+

Fancy

Bright, remarkable color - usually blue, pink, yellow.

 


The clarity, the inclusions are generally called "carbon", but the cracks are considered inclusions also natural, traces of incipient cleavage and those "growth" of the original gem.

 

Clarity Grade Description

Appearance

F

Flawless

Clear stone, free of all flaws, even under 10x magnification.

IF

Internally Flawless

No inclusions visible at 10x magnification.

VVS1

Very Very Slight Inclusion #1

Tiny inclusions are extremely difficult to find, even under 10x magnification.

VVS2

Very Very Slight Inclusion #2

Tiny inclusions are very difficult to find, even under 10x magnification.

VS1

Very Slight Inclusion #1

Minor inclusions are difficult to see under 10 x magnification.

VS2

Very Slight Inclusion #2

Minor inclusions are somewhat difficult to find under 10x magnification.

SI1

Slight Inclusion #1

Inclusions are easy to see under 10x magnification. These diamonds are considered "eye clean" since inclusions can not been seen with the naked eye. In larger diamonds very very small inclusions may be visible and still be classified as SI1.

SI2

Slight Inclusion #2

Inclusions and/or blemishes are easy to see at 10x.  These diamonds are considered "eye clean" since inclusions can not been seen with the naked eye. In larger diamonds very small inclusions may be visible and still be classified as SI2.

I1

Included #1

Inclusions and/or blemishes are obvious and rather easy to see without magnification.

I2

Included #2

Inclusions and/or blemishes are obvious and easy to see without magnification.

I3

Included #3

Inclusions and blemishes that are obvious to the unaided eye.

 

The cut, the charm of the diamond cut is not so much a direct consequence of its natural properties, as the result resulted from the application of physical laws, thanks to an appropriate cut, allow to obtain the maximum sparkle, brilliance and dispersion from the bud . The glitter is the set of flashes of light emitted from a diamond when you move your eyes, the light source, or the stone itself.


The value of a diamond, in addition to being closely linked to the mass, to the degree of purity and the degree of color, depends on the perfect proportions of cutting. In 1919 a Belgian mathematician, Marcel Tolkowsky, theorized the proportions for a brilliant cut round shape that would produce the brightest and the highest degree of dispersion or fire that cut is commonly said cutting Brilliant, and consists of 58 facets (33 + 25): 33 are the facets of the crown and 25 those of the pavilion. Using as a reference the classic cut round brilliant cuts can be made with shapes such as oval, marquise or navette, drop or pear and finally the shape of a heart.


The weight (carat) of the diamonds are weighed in carats, a carat equals 0.2 grams. The carat can be divided into grains that are equivalent to 1/20 of a gram and at points that are equivalent to 1/100 of a gram.

Ruby


This gem of the corundum family (like Sapphire), has a wide variety of shades of red, from bright red to purplish-red, red rose, red, carmine red to purple to red-brown, and its name comes from medieval Latin "rubinus", in turn derived from the classical Latin "ruber" = red.


In the trade of precious stones of this variety of corundum is considered among the most valuable, is an extremely rare gemstone and its world production is very low, it is in fact difficult to find on the market a gem of good quality with a mass of more than 2 ct , and this deficiency affects significantly on the evaluation of the same, in some cases can even exceed the value of diamonds.


The color of the ruby is very diverse, ranging from deep red (pigeon blood) to pink, through a range of color more or less intense, sometimes purple.


The color has undoubtedly had some connection with the zomna of provenineza. The rubies from Burma (the most valuable), have a strong and vibrant red color, those of Siam are more red cupio as well as those of East Africa. Those from Ceylon are generally less intense colors and easily prone to purple.


Remember, however, evident that it is very difficult to determine with certainty the origin of a cut stone according to one coloration, therefore, though indicative, the characteristic data cited above should be considered as a general indication.


The cut rubies is effttuato mainly in Thailand and India, very often is then retouched and perfected in Europe, specialemnte in Germany.


Forms of cutting are very varied and intense, to maintain the criterion of least possible weight loss, but also to bring out the best color. The cutting steps and that to superfizie curve are the most used. Rarely are brilliant cut rubies in these cases is never executed, however, the proportionality of the parties as to the cut of diamonds.

Sapphire


The term refers to the sapphire blue variety of corundum, with the intense hues to dark blue to green. Its color can vary it by a beautiful blue cornflower-blue (Cashmere), with a clear blue and deep (Burma), for a lighter, but slightly purple (Ceylon), a dark blue as ink (Siam) and finally to a dark blue and difficult to transparency with shades on and blackish green (Australia).

Emerald


It 's definitely the most valuable variety of beryl, has been discovered in commercial quantities interesting in the '60s, the color of the emerald ranges from all shades of green, in fact, his name is also derived from an ancient Persian word of uncertain significance , is the etymological consequence of the greek "smaragdos" = green stone. In past centuries, most of the green stones were called emeralds.


It 's very difficult, if not impossible, to find on the market an emerald completely free of inclusions. Inclusions which, if not large enough and / or numerous as to be obvious to the naked eye (and therefore to remove such brilliance to the stone), not only are not considered defects, but often serve as a mark of authenticity against synthetic stones and simulants . To confirm this, commercially a gem of a deep green, albeit with a fair amount of internal features, in principle, is more valuable than an emerald completely free of inclusions but color less valuable.


E 'is a stone rather delicate because of its relative hardness, both for ease of absorbing oily substances or liquid. The color has, like rubies and sapphires, a wide range of intensity, from light green, pea-green, you get a green flag pesso intense and gloomy.


The greater or lesser intensity of the color, if not in small part, subroutine did not in the field, from this, to ascertain the origin of the emeralds is something very difficult, more so than it is for rubies and sapphires.


Commercially, that finding is not important because the value of the emerald is given by its color and sharpness without prejudice of origin.


Generally the emerald is cut into square shapes or rectangular, with a large central panel in the upper part; at the bottom instead is very important that the cut is close to the shape of a parabola to make sure that the rays of light uillumino throughout the gem . Even in the case of the Emerald view the preciousness of the material cutting is always done in order to lose as little as possible, taking advantage of the best color.

Acquamarine


It 's the most important variety of the beryl group after Emerald: its color ranges in all shades of blue, from pale blue to blue to green. The aquamarine owes its name to its color, which is one of the sea.Despite being one of the gems classified as a semi-precious stone that is enjoying considerable charm, sometimes greater than that of diamond.Most important deposits for production are Brazil, Russi a and Madagascar, cristalkli of aquamarine are often of considerable simensioni, clean and beautiful color, from Brazil come the more intense color. Less important are the deposits of India, the United States and Australia.

Quartz - Rock Crystal


This name indicates the completely colorless variety of quartz that the mineralogical point of view, it takes more correctly called Hyaline Quartz. It derives its name from the greek "kryos" = frozen, as in ancient times it was believed to have originated from ice cold to the point that solidify irreversibly. Quite common, is found in every area of the earth's crust. It is sometimes used as an ornamental stone in jewelry and, in past centuries, was also used as an imitation of the diamond, is widely used in gioilelleria a silver base.

Quartz - Amethyst


Comes from the greek "Ametystos" = "not drunken", its color varies from purple to violet purple lilac and is one of the best known and most popular variety of this family (Crystals); often the color is not evenly distributed, particularly in the crystals of large dimensions.

Pearls


"Sphaerula" terminology in Latin means "little ball" while "bud scale" in the same language means small pear. They were then the Latins, great admirers of this wonderful product of the sea, to pass on to us the word pearl, even if the pearls were called in Latin by the word "margarita", in addition, this is the reason why some of the pearl oysters are indicated with this name (eg. Pinctada margaritifera).


You can define natural pearls concretions, aesthetic multiforme, produced by some marine or freshwater mollusks that produce the same substances that produce the shell. When a foreign object is inserted into the mantle of the mollusk it irritates the inner part, known as "secretory epithelium," and this is inglobato.La pearl takes shape and volume with the passage of years, and reached its maximum size after a convenient stay in the mollusk (from 5 to 10 years and over).


All shellfish are potentially perliferi, but the best known are: the Meleagrina, the Pinna nobilis, the Strombus gigas and Haliotis between the marine, the Unio and Hyriopsis Schlegeli among those dolce.Storicamente water, the seas who gave with plenty pearls were: the Persian Gulf, the Gulf of Manaar, the seas of the Pacific Islands (Micronesia and Polynesia), Venezuela, and the Red Sea, near the coast of Arabia.


The color is usually variable from milky white to pinkish white, brown to black, white argenteo.L 'origin of the color of the pearls has not been established with scientific certainty, partly because the variables that intervene are numerous, but most of the authors believe that the pearls in nature are colored as a function of the pigment contained in the organic substance; others believe that the coloring is the result of a sum of several contributing factors: the degree of salinity of the water, the type of plankton present, as well as the different elements dissolved in traces in the environment of growth.


Known natural process of formation of the pearl, the man has been trying to imitate nature artificially provoking. However, only the beginning of this century, several attempts have been successful enough to justify the investment necessary for cultivation on an industrial scale.


The main elements for a qualitative assessment of pearls (natural and / or cultivated) are the shape, the size and the color.


Form: while presenting the second most diverse forms, the beads are grouped into categories of reference, the most important of which are (in order of merit): spherical or sub-spherical, oval, drop, or semibarocca baroque fantasy; to give maggaior value is the type of surface that is to be as much as possible free from imperfections or defects, smooth and polished.


Dimensions: the value of the beads, single or wire, is closely related to the dimensions: it is intuitive that, with the increase of the same, increases the rarity of individuals and consequently their extremely valuable dimensions are measured in millimeters, with the tolerance of 1/2 mm (es.6-6, 5 mm), measurement that, when present, is performed perpendicularly to the hole, otherwise, we will specify the minimum diameter and the maximum. In commercial offices each bead is evaluated in addition to the brightness and color, especially for the size, the weight unit is the "mommes", an old Japanese measurement which corresponds to 3.75 grams, but for convenience, as mentioned , wholesale and retail is considered the diameter of the pearl.


Color: binaco with pink, green or silver or deep black with shades of green for Tahitian pearls.


Types of pearls, Japanese pearls - Akoya, Pearls Australia - South Sea Pearls, Tahitian Pearls - Black Pearls, Pearls Chinese - Fresh water pearls.


To preserve the luster of pearls or pearl jewelry there, you should take some simple precautions such as wearing the necklace only after you have used make-up and perfumes and / or body sprays and / or hair, wash them regularly with Simple water, and costudirle in a soft cloth sparatamente from other objects, specialemnte of metal, from which may receive blows and / or abrasions.

Rhodium


Rhodium, Rh elemnto chemical, is part of the Platinum group of metals, it is used in gold jewelry and silverware, with galvanic process to give the jewel uniformity of color, whiteness, gloss and abrasion resistance.


Its name derives from the greek for the red color of its salts.


An object riodiato, before being put to the flame to undergo some processing, must be cleaned from the rhodium in solution of sulfuric acid, otherwise the effect of the heated and undergoes alterations becoming dark and making it difficult for future recovery of rhodium.


It should be noted how the process of rhodium is not permanent, but its maintenance can varaiare by various factors, such as use and wear of the jewel, degree of pH of the skin, contact with other metals.

Amber 


The name derives from Amber anbar or ambar which means golden, referring to the yellow typical of this fossil resin. The earliest documentation of amber in archaeological context, are superiorie Paleolithic, Mesolithic and Neolithic circulation was more intense amber in Europe during the Bronze Age, affecting among other things, the Mycenaean civilization.


Amber was also used in ancient times for its healing properties, Pliny the Elder in "Historia naturalis", explains the main diseases that amber could cure.Amber from biological point of view, is a resian derived from fossil gymnosperms and angiosperms lived trees over a period of time ranging from the Carboniferous to the Pliocene-Pleistocene, mainly in areas paleogeographic climate umisdo, a subtropical.


Amber is the product of fossilization and the polymerization of organic compounds rella starting resin, it is an amorphous substance, waxy, which presents itself in nodules of various sizes and shapes depending on comela starting resin is leaking from the shaft of origin : a swollen drops in ice, to castings, etc.. .


When the amber is found in alluvial gravel and sand no longer owns the matte finish, index del'avvenuta oxidative action of atmospheric oxygen, but there is often rounded and shaped pebbles and grains.


Recently, Amber has been redeveloped and riapprezzata for its use as a gemstone.